Electric mobility scooters are mainly composed of four major components: the controller, motor, battery, charger, and the vehicle itself.
In brief, the controller is composed of peripheral devices and a main chip or microcontroller. Peripheral devices are functional components such as sensors, bridges, and auxiliary microcontrollers, or specialized integrated circuits that work with the main chip to complete the control process. The microcontroller, also known as a microcomputer, is a computer chip that combines memory, a decoder with a signal language transformation, a sawtooth wave generator and a pulse width modulation circuit to control the motor speed with a driving circuit that allows power transistors to conduct or cut off through square wave control, and input/output ports mounted on an integrated chip. This is the intelligent controller of the elderly electric mobility scooter.
The controller is a high-tech product that appears in a "simple" form. The design quality, features, and microprocessor functionality, power switching circuit layout, and peripheral device arrangement directly affect the performance and operating status of the entire vehicle, as well as the performance and efficiency of the controller itself. Different controllers used on the same vehicle, even with the same set of batteries in the same charging/discharging state, can sometimes show a significant difference in driving range.
The model specifications include 12V7AH, 12V8AH, 12V10AH, 12V10AH (high capacity), 12V17AH, 12V20AH; electric hub motor models include: brushed geared high-speed electric hub motor, brushed gearless low-speed electric hub motor, and brushless gearless programmable motor. The controllers are classified into fully active, intelligent, dual-control, and zero start type according to their control mode. The control system is composed of a main controller, instrument display, speed regulating handle, and brake power-off handle, etc. Its main functions include stepless speed regulation, brake power-off protection, undervoltage protection, and overcurrent protection. The chargers are classified by output plug type as Lotus plug type, ordinary computer plug type, and specially designed computer plug type.
According to charging performance, they are classified into a normal online maintenance charger and a fast online maintenance charger. Classified by charging voltage they are 36V, 48V.
DC motors are commonly used in elderly electric mobility scooters with permanent magnets or wound fields. The rotating part of a motor is called the rotor, while the stationary part is called the stator. The rotor or stator of a permanent magnet motor has a permanent magnet and the other is a wire wrapped by an insulating layer. The rotor and stator of a wound-field motor are made of wire wrapped by an insulating layer. An equal power permanent magnet motor consumes less power than a wound-field motor. Permanent magnet motors are sensitive to high temperatures; those of poor quality will demagnetize at 110℃, whereas those of good quality can withstand up to 140℃. There is no such problem for wound-field motors as they do not have permanent magnets.
Elderly electric mobility scooters on the market typically have motor power of 400-900 watts and use wound-field motors, which are brushed motors. For three-wheeled scooters, 300 watts is sufficient; they typically use permanent magnet motors. The motor power of elderly electric mobility scooters is generally 180-250 watts.